Raspberry Leaf – An Herbal Tonic

February 22nd, 2010 § 0 comments § permalink

If you’ve been to a natural food store, you’ve probably seen boxes of raspberry leaf tea sitting on a shelf. You may of looked at that box and read words like “uterine tonic”, or “pregnancy tonic”. Perhaps you even tried the delicately sweet, slightly sour and astringent (but mostly just…green tasting) member of the rose family.

Raspberry leaf is a perfect tonic for during pregnancy. Generally, it is demulcent (soothing to tissues), astringent, tonic to smooth muscles (especially uterus and large intestine). Since it is rich in vitamins and minerals, raspberry is a well-known nutritive herb.  It is also helpful as an astringent tonic is excessive urination and diarrhea, and when the uterus and bladder feel heavy or prolapsed. Raspberry’s more thorny cousin blackberry is one of the most effective remedies for diarrhea for whatever the cause, in childhood contagious bugs, food poising, traveler’s diarrhea, or digestive diseases. It is a good thing to have in your globe trotting first-aid kit – and it’s cheaper and easier on the body then antibiotics.

Raspberry leaf has been used for hundreds of years during and after pregnancy. It can reduce morning sickness in the early months of pregnancy, and can also be helpful in arresting post-partum bleeding. Australian nurse-practitioner Ruth Tricky says that researchers “…suggested that Rubus would prevent or reduce the risk of in-coordinate uterine action (a common cause of difficulty and  failure to progress in labor), by regulating the action of the uterine muscles.” (Tricky, 423).

To use raspberry leaf tea during pregnancy, start drinking it after the first trimester. Don’t hesitate–steep strong! One tea bag in one cup of hot water  steeped 10 minuets is definitely not going to have the same effect as a medicinally prepared tea. Dried raspberry is quite fluffy, so go more for a fourth or third cup of the dried herb steeped, covered, in 3-4 cups hot water for 2 – 4 hours. Strain and  drink daily. Blend with other nutritious tonic herbs like nettle, oatstraw, or alfalfa if desired. Midwife Aviva Romm suggest drinking the tea with a slice of fresh orange or lemon, since the vitamin C of the citrus will increase the rate of absorption of the vitamins and minerals in raspberry leaf tea (iron, for one).

Tonic seems like a quint word of Victorian yesteryear, but it is used often in herbalism. Tonics are called so because they tone or strengthen a body system(s) or the body as a whole over a period of time. To be considered a tonic, an herb usually has a medium to high nutritive profile (like nettle, for instance) and must be safe and mild enough to take everyday indeterminately. Another important feature of tonics are that they seem to have a rich ethnobotanical history of use. Basically, they have been safely used by people for hundreds or thousands of years.

As far I know, every herbal system has tonics, but Chinese medicine has a disproportionate amount of tonics to offer. Ginseng, He-Shou-Wu, Dang Qui, and Astragalus are a few examples. From Roy Upton:

”Chinese herbal medicine has long revered the use of herbal tonics to promote health, longevity, and counter the effects of aging. The highest ideal of Chinese medicine is to promote the highest level of health for the longest period of time, in contrast to simply applying herbs or therapies for the treatment of disease”(124, Medicines from the Earth 2006).

There are many types of tonics; lung tonics, uterine tonics, cardiotonics and so on. Herbs that are used as tonics also have other uses. For example, cordyceps is a yang tonic used to increase warmth, energy and growth when deficient, but is also used for restoring adrenal activity, strengthening the immune system and enhancing athletic output. As you can see, the underlying tonic action is often related to the short term uses of the herb.

There are a few similarities tonics share with each other, but we can’t overgeneralize their actions. Some are astringent (raspberry leaf, a uterine tonic), some are adaptogenic, others are nutritive. Here are a few examples: Schisandra, reishi and shiitake mushrooms, milky oats, licorice, raspberry leaf, alfalfa, astragalus, red clover, licorice, ashwaganda, skullcap, motherwort, linden, hawthorn, gingko.

It may seem that herbal tonics might not be strong action or illicit marked change in the body because they are food-like, relatively safe in large and continual doses (1-4 cups of tea a day for a year or more), and act generally to promote health. This is definitely not the case. Each of these herbs (even alfalfa or raspberry leaf) have their unique medicinal actions. It is through understanding the action and energetic details (like its taste or temperature) of the plant that can help you find the herbal tonic right for you.

Sources:

Romm, Aviva Jill. The Natural Pregnancy Book.

Tricky, Ruth. Women, Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle.

Raspberry Leaf – Rubus ideaeus

August 5th, 2009 § 0 comments § permalink

Raspberry leaf, Rubus idaeus and wild species. Raspberry’s astringency, nutritive and tonic qualities lead to being well-known as a woman’s herb, especially during pregnancy. A hot cup of tea made from the dried leaves is quite pleasant with honey, or blended with other herbs. I do not have an exact quote on this (my copy of her pregnancy book is out on loan), but I think it was Aviva Romm that mentioned something about drinking raspberry leaf tea with a juice from a fresh-squeezed orange. Not only does that sound delicious, but it adds to the vitamin C content as well.Raspberries in Lincoln Park

What makes raspberry leaf so toning besides it’s obvious astringency? One known chemical constituent that lends to this is fragarine. Fragarine is an alkaloid that has been long linked to raspberries toning action.  I say ‘been linked’ because there are many other properties/constituents in raspberry, like the flavonoid quercitin, tannins, vitamins and minerals (it is very high in manganese), ect… From Herbal Amanda’s Rant blog:

“Fragarine was thought to be the ‘active’ constituent of raspberry leaf, the one that cause uterine muscle tissues to strengthen, but it is now postulated that is a more complex reaction that isn’t due to any one constituent, but a combination of many. This particular conclusion seems to be more and more excepted for most herbal medicines, as main constituents are usually found to not work, or have different actions when isolated.”

This makes perfect sense.

Strawberries! mmmNeed astringency for excessive menstruation? How about a cup or two or four of raspberry leaf tea drank as needed, combined with other herbs as desired (I love shepherd’s purse and lady’s mantle for this) or over many months as a tonic. That is a beautiful choice since raspberry can boost some of the nutrients lost from the lots of bleeding, as well as tone pelvic muscles, including the uterus. It has also been used for painful cramps, too, although it may be best combined with stronger spasmolytics. Don’t forget to use raspberry after pelvic surgeries or any kind as a general healing tonic.

When used for labor, raspberry has both uterine relaxing and contraction inhibiting actions, which seems contradictory. In 1970 the leaf (not only fragarine) was tested, and the researchers…

“…suggested that Rubus would prevent or reduce the risk of in-coordinate uterine action (a common cause of difficulty and failure to progress in labor), by regulating the action of the uterine muscles.” (Tricky, 423).

To use raspberry leaf tea during pregnancy, start drinking it after the first trimester. Don’t hesitate–steep strong! One tea bag in one cup of hot water steeped 10 minuets is not going to have the same effect as a medicinally prepared tea. Dried raspberry is quite fluffy, so go more for a fourth or third cup of the dried herb steeped, covered, in 3-4 cups hot water for 2 – 4 hours. Strain and drink daily. Blend with other herbs like nettle, oatstraw, or alfalfa if desired.

Strawberry leaf, Fragaria vesica. Let’s not forget the beautiful strawberry leaves, which have a similar sweet but astringent taste. I like making a lunar infusion of fresh strawberry leaves, covering a small handful of the leaves with water and letting steep over night.

Strawberry leaves are not used as much as raspberry, and thus not mentioned in the herbals as much either. I guess this makes sense, especially looking around in the woods. Raspberries are everywhere, spreading like mad, while little strawberry plants are much less conspicuous and have just a few leaves to each plant. And thus, it’s uses are often lumped with raspberry.

It’s astringent, cooling (as a member of the rose family), and nutritive. Rosemary Gladstar says “it can be combined with raspberry leaf and squaw vine for an exceptional tonic blend to drink during the entire pregnancy” (178).

Culpepper speaks of the cooling nature of strawberry:

“The leaves and roots boiled in wine and water, and drank, do likewise cool the liver and blood, and assuage all inflammations in the reins and bladder, provoke urine, and allay the heat and sharpness thereof. The same also being drank stays the bloody flux and women’s courses, and helps the swelling of the spleen.”

References:

Culpepper, Nicolas. http://www.bibliomania.com/2/1/66/113/frameset.html

Gladstar, Rosemary. Herbal Healing for Women.
Hoffmann, David. The New Holistic Herbal.
Trickey, Ruth. Women, Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle.
Weed, Susun. Breast Cancer? Breast Health!
Wood, Matthew. The Earthwise Herbal (Old World)

Example Formulas for Dysmenorrhea

April 18th, 2009 § 0 comments § permalink

    One thing I love about herbalism is that every herbalist has different herbs, practices and tactics that they favor. There is so many varieties and examples to learn from!  Some seem to be more into tonics, others use simples (single herbs) in almost homeopathic dosages, but most all have specific remedies for symptoms while reiterating the need to support the body systems over the long term.

    No matter how you look at it, suggested herbal formulas from trusted herbalists are a good place to start. They can also be used as guidelines when formulating for the individual. After going over a few examples from a few different herbalists, the beginning herbalist gains knowledge through researching the materia medica and action categories mentioned.

    Let’s look at a few formulas to get some ideas, starting with some from Rosemary Gladstar. She reiterates that you should stick to an herbal program at least four months. Here is a “Hormonal Regulator Tea” from Herbal Healing for Woman, p 117. Decoct, and drink 3-4 cups for 3 weeks out of the month. As you can see, it is not simply herbs for the reproductive system. It offers much support for the liver, which has to process all the hormones circulating in the body, and supports the digestive system, inflammation, and enriches the blood.

    • 1 part wild yam
    • 1 part ginger
    • 2 parts dandelion root (raw)
    • 2 parts burdock root (raw)
    • 2 parts licorice
    • 2 parts sassafras
    • 1 part yellow dock
    • 1/4 vitex

    It is also important to include sufficient calcium, as a low amount has been linked to cramping, as blood levels of calcium drop off 10 days before menstruation. Again, there are more than just calcium-rich herbs in here! There are nervines, blood and uterine tonics and emmenagogues.  “High Calcium Tea” (p 118):

    • 2 parts oatstraw
    • 1 part horsetail
    • 2 parts comfrey
    • 2 parts nettle
    • 4 parts peppermint
    • 2 parts pennyroyal
    • 4 parts raspberry leaf

    For acute cramping, she recommends the following “Cramp-T”

    • 1 part cramp bark or black haw
    • 1 part pennyroyal
    • 1 part valerian
    • 1/2 part ginger

    A tincture of valerian, about 1/2 teaspoon every twenty minuets until the pain decreases. Another handy remedy to have around is pennyroyal essential oil, to rub a few diluted drops on the abdomen during cramping. Please be cautions with pennyroyal essential oil and never take it internally, because it is extremely toxic internally.

    Now let’s take a look at David Winston’s recommendations. In my last entry, I asked, “…I don’t know if all anodyne work on the same parts of the body…”. Well, Winston has cleared that up for me. Here is “Aspirea Compound” (32)

    • willow bark
    • meadowsweet herb
    • St. John’s wortSt. Johns Wort
    • Jamaica dogwood
    • indian pipe

    It has anti-inflammatory herbs (willow, meadowsweet, St. John’s wort), Jamaica dogwood which is analgesic and antispasmodic which Winston says is “especially for dysmenorrhea…”, and indian pipe which “…creates a feeling of separation from the pain” (32). I have tried this formula for other types of pain with great success (tooth ache, back spasm), but have yet to use it for cramps. It is very relaxing.

    “Full Moon – Woman’s Antispasmodic Compound”

    • PA-Free Petasites root
    • Black haw
    • wild yam
    • Jamaica dogwood
    • cyperus root
    • Roman chamomile flowers

    Winston’s notes: for mild to severe dysmenorrhea and some of the accompanying symptoms, take acutely, not daily. Here we see lots of antispasmodics at work.

    “J. Kloss Anti-spasmodic Compound” (p4 6)

    • black cohosh
    • myrrh
    • skullcap
    • skunk cabbage
    • lobelia
    • cayenne

    This is an example of a classic formula that works well as is, or can be adapted to suit individual needs. I have seen and used a couple variations of this formula (Dr. Christopher has one), one with blue vervain, blue cohosh instead of myrrh and skunk cabbage for treating epilepsy in a dog (2 drops a day for 3 months) and a severe tension headache (1/4 teaspoon every hour), both times it worked great. In the later, I sipped miso soup to quell the nausea that came with the lobelia and vervain.

    Here is one more set of examples from David Hoffmann’s Medical Herbalism from page 387 -8.

    • black haw
    • skullcap
    • black cohosh

    This is a basic formula that covers the many of the action categories mentioned in the last entry. All are antispasmodic, al are nervine, and black cohosh is  uterine tonic. The dosage is 5mL of tincture as needed, so when pain is approaching and in full swing. If a woman has secondary dysmenorrhea caused by pelvic lesions (from endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease) the dosage is 5 mL of the following tincture taken three times a day, rather than just symptomatically:

    • cramp bark
    • wild yam
    • black cohosh

    Again, all herbs are antispasmodic, cramp bark and black cohosh are nervines with black cohosh being the uterine tonic.

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